Linux notes

Posted on 26/01/2019, in Infomation Technology.
  1. Problem save file as root user and cannot open later: link
  2. Reinstall gksu (beed deleted by Ubuntu/Debian): link –> It seems that work not so well.
    gksu -u <user> -c <command>
  3. Scale matlab: need to install matleb version >= R2017b
    s = settings;s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor
    s.matlab.desktop.DisplayScaleFactor.PersonalValue = 2
  4. Find in linux with command lines: link
  5. Launching matlab without graphic ui: matlab -nodesktop (link)
  6. How to add existing user to an existing group (link)
    sudo usermod -a -G groupName userName
  7. Cannot move files to the trash/wrong owner: link
  8. Check disk space with command lines: df -h
  9. Git tip: Beautiful colored and readable output: link
  10. Chrome UI size & zoom levels in Ubuntu 16.04: link
  11. gnome screen shot: link
  12. Thumbnail nautilus: go to setting, set and apply this line
    sudo chown -R yourusername:yourusername ~/.cache/thumbnails
  13. Make a shortcut link to a folder/file in linux terminal: link
  14. Prevent bluetooth devices disconnected after sleep: link
  15. Tweaks for ubuntu on surface book: link
  16. linux-surface
  17. Windows shrink drive in windows: link (partition, resize disk drive, hard disk)
  18. Shortcut to a folder in linux: link
  19. Failed to load module “canberra-gtk-module”
    sudo apt install libcanberra-gtk-module libcanberra-gtk3-module
  20. Change ownership of a folder and its children
    # folder and its children
    chown -R thi:root folder
    # a file
    chown <user>:<group> file
  21. IBUS-WARNING: The owner of /home/thi/.config/ibus/bus is not root!
  22. Check the permission of curent directory: ll <file> or ll

    • face see the photo

      check ll

  23. Right click nautilus “Open as Administrator”:
    sudo apt-get install nautilus-admin
    nautilus -q # restart nautilus
  24. Cannot open matlab without sudo: change the owner permission of folder /home/thi/.matlab to thi* (cf. 20)

    • Another solution: suppose that matlab is installed on a user’s directory and you have already add this to the $PATH. IT’s only work if you use matlab (not sudo matlab). Then do
    sudo env "PATH=$PATH"

    from this, you can sudo matlab

  25. Add app to dash: install alacarte sudo apt-get install alacarte
  26. Turn off animation open and minimize windows on ubuntu 17.10 and later (gnome desktop): Gnome Tweak Tools > Apperance > Animations OFF
  27. Gõ tiếng Việt SublimeText, install package vn ime (gõ tìm đúng như thế). Khi sử dụng thì nhấn F2.
  28. Save github account as default git config credential.helper store then git pull for the first time input.
  29. Install file .bin, .run

    chmod +x 
  30. Matlab drive connector: after installing, run ~/bin/MATLABConnector toggle
  31. Install freefem++ on Ubuntu 18
    • Install prerequired packages

      sudo apt-get install cpp freeglut3-dev g++ gcc gfortran
      sudo apt-get install  ghostscript m4 make patch pkg-config wget python
      sudo apt install autoconf
      sudo apt-get install bison
      sudo apt-get install flex
    • Download freefem++ at here (choose the tar.gz file)
    • Extract and cd to the extrated folder
    • Run following commands

      autoreconf -i
      make check
      sudo make install
  32. Download a direct link by terminal

    wget <direct-link> -O <name-of-file>.<file-extension>
  33. Download from google drive by terminal
    • Download as usual without terminal by a web browser
    • Open Downloads windows of the browser and then copy the download link.
    • Stop the download process
    • Use the command link in 33 where <direct-link> is the link copied above.
  34. Unzip: sudo apt-get install unzip and then unzip <file> or unzip <file> -d <destination>
  35. Remove

    rm <file>
    rm -f <file> # force to remove
    rm -rf <dir> # remove folder and files includes
    rmdir <empty-dir> # remove empty directories
  36. Check size of a folder

    du -hs <directory>
    • “h” : human readable (6.7G)
    • ”s” : only this directory (otherwise, it reads all included)
  37. Mount iso file on linux

    sudo mount -o loop <image>.iso /mnt/<folder>

    If you mount another iso file to the same , it will replace the current one.

  38. Extract a iso file: first, mount it like in 37 to folder named iso then copy all the contents in iso to some folder you want.

    cp -r /mnt/iso <directory>
  39. How to install matlab silently (only with command lines) on linux? (if below doesn’t work, you can cf here, my method is different from this one)

    • Suppose that you have 2 dvd iso files which contains the installation of matlab (dvd1.iso and dvd2.iso)
    • For the activation, you have and license_standalone.lic
    • First, you need to extract 2 dvd iso files to a common folder named install_matlab in /home/thi/
    • Create a new folder to install matlab called matlabR in /home/thi/
    • Extract all files in 2 iso files to folder install_matlab like the instruction 38
    • Run below command line

      sudo /home/thi/matlab_install/install -agreeToLicense yes -mode silent -destinationFolder /home/thi/matlabR -fileInstallationKey xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx  -outputFile /home/matlab_install.log
    • After the installation, copy file license_standalone.lic to /home/thi/matlabR/licenses/
    • Copy file to /home/thi/matlabR/bin/glnxa64/
    • Try running matlab: /home/thi/matlabR/bin/matlab
    • If you have an error like cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory, try to install sudo apt-get install libxt6.
    • Make linux recognize your matlab command matlab like in the instruction 40.
    • Finish.
  40. Make linux recognize matlab command

    • Suppose that you have installed matlab on /home/thi/matlabR
    • You need to add above directory to the $PATH so that the system can recognize your matlab command

      export PATH=$PATH:/home/thi/matlabR/bin
    • You can use echo $PATH to check if the path is located in it or not.
  41. Sync files with mega right on terminal

    • Install megatools: sudo apt-get install megatools
    • Using megatools, cf the main website.
    • Create a condig file which stores your login information (be careful, everyone can see your pass)

      sudo apt-get install vim # in case that you don't have vim on your system
      vim .megarc # create a file named .megarc
    • vim opens and type

      Username = [email protected]
      Password = yourpassword

      If you have back slash in your password, you must escape it with another backslash

    • Quit vim and save the file by pressing ESC and then :wq!
    • Upload a file: megaput --path /Root/<folder> file
    • See the list of file on remote: megals
    • Upload a folder: megacopy --local <folder> --remote <folder>
    • Download from link: megadl <mega-link>
    • Download a single file: megaget <file>

      megaget /Root/Apps/matlab17b/R2017b_glnxa64_dvd2.iso
    • Download from uploaded directory: megacopy --local <folder> --remote <folder-to-download> --download
  42. Connect ssh to a virtual machine (the same network)

    • Install openssh for both client and server machine
    sudo apt-get install openssh-client
    sudo apt-get install openssh-server
    • On server machine, check ssh is running or not
    ps -A | grep sshd
    # return [number] ?  00:00:00 sshd then it works
  43. Terminal multi windows: sudo apt-get install terminator
  44. Save a directory a $PATH of local profile.

    sudo gedit ~/.profile
    # copy and paste following line (should change the path)
    export PATH=/home/thi/anaconda3/bin:$PATH
    # save and close .profile and then apply following line to get instant update
    source ~/.profile
  45. Mp3 tag editor: sudo apt install exfalso (Ex Falso)
  46. Resize multiple photos (keep the ratio/scale) (more options):

    # install
    sudo apt-get install imagemagick
    # resize but keep the ratio (save to jpg)
    mogrify -resize 50% -format jpg *
    # resize keep the extension
    mogrify -resize 50% *
    # with a specific size (save to jpg)
    mogrify -resize 800x600 -format jpg *
    # just the width (save to jpg)
    mogrify -resize 800x -format jpg *
    # only resize images bigger than 1000px width
    mogrify -resize 1000x\> *
  47. Shorten directory in terminal

    • Temporarily, just enter PS1='\u:\W\$ ' en press enter.
    • Permanently, open sudo gedit ~/.bashrc and find

      if [ "$color_prompt" = yes ]; then
        PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[\033[01;32m\]\[email protected]\h\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\w\[\033[00m\]\$ '
        PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[email protected]\h:\w\$ '

      Remove @\h and replace \w by \W so that it becomes,

      if [ "$color_prompt" = yes ]; then
        PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\[\033[01;32m\]\u\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\W\[\033[00m\]\$ '
        PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u:\W\$ '

      Save, exit, close terminal and start another to see the result.

  48. Check CPU & RAM info

    # cpu
    cat /proc/cpuinfo
    # ram
    cat /proc/meminfo
  49. Check the current path: pwd
  50. Add path to system

    export PATH=/home/thi/bin:$PATH

    But above command only works for current session, if you wanna add permanently, open ~/.profile and then paste above command into it and then save. Finally, do below command to make instantly worked!

    source ~/.profile
  51. Rename a file/folder in terminal linux: mv olname.txt newname.txt
  52. Get ip address (ipconfig trong Windows): ifconfig
  53. Use ssh to get access to another computer in the same network (LAN)

    1. Follow (a little bit) here.
    2. On the remote machine
    3. update and upgrade install
    4. install openssh-server
    5. open /etc/ssh/sshd_config and uncomment on Port 22 and lines starting with Hostkey...
    6. start the network: sudo service ssh start
    7. stop the network: sudo service ssh stop
    8. check if the network is running or not? sudo service ssh status
    9. Check the current ip: ifconfig: look on the inet
    10. On the local machine
    11. Install the same tool and use ssh [email protected]
  54. Look and kill an app process:

    • Check the id: ps ax | grep teamviewer
    • Kill: kill -9 <pid>
  55. Remove matlab on linux: simply rm -rf <matlab-folder>
  56. Add bookmark for evince (default pdf reader)
    • F9: hide/show sidebar
    • Menu on the top right > Add bookmarks
    • Click on bookmark and rename it
    • Ctrl + Shift + S to save (instead of Ctrl+S)
  57. Using foxit reader for ubuntu: tab, keyboard shortcuts,…
  58. Remove PPA from ubuntu by terminal. For example, The repository ‘ artful Release’ does not have a Release file. Remove the file b-eltzner-qpdfview-ubuntu from directory /etc/apt/sources.list.d

    sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/<file>
  59. screen, keep session on server open after turn off local machine.
    • Turn on the screen session: screen
    • Detach the session (safely turn off computer while the session still on the remote): Ctrl+A and then D
    • See the list of screen: screen -ls
    • Go to some session: screen -r
    • Wanna kill some sesion:
      • First go to this session by screen -r
      • Then press Ctrl+A then K then y
    • cf
  60. Download playlist audio youtube, using youtube-dl (github)
  sudo apt-get install curl -y (cài curl nếu chưa cài)
  sudo curl -L -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
  sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
  youtube-dl --extract-audio --audio-format mp3 -o "%(title)s.%(ext)s" <link-playlist>
  1. Copy files from ubuntu to iPhone iOS iPad
    • Don’t need to install any files if one needs to copy photos/videos from iphone to ubuntu, one can use gThumb to do this or just use file manager to copy.
    • If one wants to copy files to iphone. Follow this one